Our Family Digital Wellness Guide is based on the best available evidence identified by our clinical and research experts.

Infants & Toddlers

Preschoolers

  • American Academy of Pediatrics. Healthy Digital Media Use Habits for Babies, Toddlers & Preschoolers. HealthyChildren.org. https://healthychildren.org/English/family-life/Media/Pages/Healthy-Digital-Media-Use-Habits-for-Babies-Toddlers-Preschoolers.aspx. Published November 12, 2019. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • Beyens, I.; Nathanson, A.I. Electronic media use and sleep among preschoolers: Evidence for time-shifted and less consolidated sleep. Health Communication. 2019;34(5):537-544. doi: 10.1080/10410236.2017.1422102
  • Bickham, D.S; Kavanaugh, J.R; Alden, S.; Rich, M. The State of Play: How Play Affects
    Developmental Outcomes. Center on Media and Child Health. https://cmch.tv/wp-content/uploads/State-of-Play.pdf. Published 2015. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • Common Sense Media. The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Kids Age Zero to Eight, 2017. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/the-common-sense-census-media-use-by-kids-age-zero-to-eight-2017/. Published October 19, 2017. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • Coyne, S.M.; Padilla-Walker, L.M.; Holmgren, H.G.; et al. A meta-analysis of prosocial media on prosocial behavior, aggression, and empathic concern: A multidimensional approach. Developmental Psychology. 2018;54(2):331-347. doi: 10.1037/dev0000412
  • Fisch, S.M.; Truglio, R.T.; Cole, C.F. The impact of sesame street on preschool children: A review and synthesis of 30 years’ research. Media Psychology. 1999;1(2):165-190. doi: 10.1207/s1532785xmep0102_5
  • Goncalves, W.S.F.; Byrne, R.; Viana, M.T.; et al. Parental influences on screen time and weight status among preschool children from brazil: A cross-sectional study. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2019;16(27). doi: 10.1186/s12966-019-0788-3
  • Helm, A.F.; Spencer, R.M.C. Television use and its effects on sleep in early childhood. Sleep Health. 2019;5(3):241-247. doi: 10.1016/j.sleh.2019.02.009
  • Hinkley, T.; Brown, H.; Carson, V.; et al. Cross sectional associations of screen time and outdoor play with social skills in preschool children. PLOS One. 2018;13(4):e0193700. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0193700
  • How can I avoid making media into a “forbidden fruit” for my kids? Mediatrics. http://mediatrics.com/ask-the-mediatrician/media-forbidden-fruit/. Published February 23, 2017. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • Jusiene, R.; Urbonas, V.; Laurinaityte, I.; et al. Screen use during meals among young children: Exploration of associated variables. Medicina. 2019;55(10):688. doi: 10.3390/medicina55100688
  • Kostyrka-Allchorne, K.; Cooper, N.R.; Simpson, A. Touchscreen generation: Children’s current media use, parental supervision methods and attitudes towards contemporary media. Acta Paediatrica. 2017;106(4):654-662. doi: 10.1111/apa.13707
  • Linebarger, D.N.; Brey, E.; Fenstermacher, S.; et al. What makes preschool educational television educational? A content analysis of literacy, language-promoting, and prosocial preschool programming. In: Barr, R.; Linebarger, D.N.; eds. Media exposure during infancy and early childhood: The effects of content and context on learning and development. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2017:97-133.
  • Madigan, S.; Browne, D.; Racine, N.; et al. Association between screen time and children’s performance on a developmental screening test. JAMA Pediatrics. 2019;173(3):244-250. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.5056
  • McDaniel, B.T.; Radesky, J.S. Technoference: Longitudinal associations between parent technology use, parenting stress, and child behavior problems. Pediatric Research. 2018;84:210-218.
  • Poulain, T.; Vogel, M.; Neef, M.; et al. Reciprocal associations between electronic media use and behavioral difficulties in preschoolers. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2018;15(4):814. doi: 10.3390/ijerph15040814
  • Radesky, J.S.; Peacock-Chambers, E.; Zuckerman, B.; et al. Use of mobile technology to calm upset children: Associations with social-emotional development. JAMA Pediatrics. 2016;170(4):397-399. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4260
  • Schlesinger, M.A.; Flynn, R.M.; Richert, R.A. US preschoolers’ trust of and learning from media characters. Journal of Children and Media. 2016;10(3):321-340. doi: 10.1080/17482798.2016.1162184
  • Tamana, S.K.; Ezeugwu, V.; Chikuma, J.; et al. Screen-time is associated with inattention problems in preschoolers: Results from the child birth cohort study. PLOS One. 2019;14(4):e0213995. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0213995
  • Thompson, J.L.; Sebire, S.J.; Kesten, J.M.; et al. How parents perceive screen viewing in their 5–6 year old child within the context of their own screen viewing time: A mixed-methods study. BMC Public Health. 2017;17(471). doi: 10.1186/s12889-017-4394-5
  • Vanderloo, L.M. Screen-viewing among preschoolers in childcare: A systematic review. BMC Pediatrics. 2014;14(205). doi: 10.1186/1471-2431-14-205
  • Webster, E.K.; Martin, C.K.; Staiano, A.E. Fundamental motor skills, screen-time, and physical activity in preschoolers. Journal of Sport and Health Science. 2019;8(2):114-121. doi: 10.1016/j.jshs.2018.11.006
  • Wiseman, N.; Harris, N.; Downes, M. Preschool children’s preferences for sedentary activity relates to parent’s restrictive rules around active outdoor play. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):946. doi: 10.1186/s12889-019-7235-x
  • Wood, E.; Petkovski, M.; De Pasquale, D.; et al. Parent scaffolding of young children when engaged with mobile technology. Frontiers in Psychology. 2016;7:690. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2016.00690

School Age

  • Anderson, C.A.; Bushman, B.J.; Bartholow, B.D.; et al. Screen violence and youth behavior. Pediatrics. 2017;140(Suppl. 2):S142-S147. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1758T
  • Bowman, L.L.; Levine, L.E.; Waite, B.M.; Gendron, M. Can students really multitask? An experimental study of instant messaging while reading. Computers & Education. 2010;54(4):927-931. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2009.09.024
  • Canadian Paediatric Society, Digital Health Task Force. Digital media: Promoting healthy screen use in school-aged children and adolescents. Paediatrics & Child Health. 2019;24(6):402-408. doi: 10.1093/pch/pxz095
  • Common Sense Media. The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Tweens and Teens, 2019. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/the-common-sense-census-media-use-by-tweens-and-teens-2019/. Published October 28, 2019. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • DePaolis, K.J.; Williford, A. Pathways from cyberbullying victimization to negative health outcomes among elementary school students: A longitudinal investigation. Journal of Child and Family Studies. 2019;28(1757):2390-2403. doi: 10.1007/s10826-018-1104-6
  • Hale, L.; Guan, S. Screen time and sleep among school-aged children and adolescents: A systematic literature review. Sleep Medicine Reviews. 2015;2015 June(21):50-58. doi: 10.1016/j.smrv.2014.07.007
  • Hoge, E.; Bickham, D.; Cantor, J. Digital media, anxiety, and depression in children. Pediatrics. 2017;140(Suppl. 2):S76-S80. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1758G.
  • Holfeld, B.; Leadbeater, B.J. The interrelated effects of traditional and cybervictimization on the development of internalizing symptoms and aggressive behaviors in elementary school. Merrill-Palmer Quarterly. 2018;64(2):220-247. doi: 10.13110/merrpalmquar1982.64.2.0220
  • Holfeld, B.; Mishna, F. Longitudinal associations in youth involvement as victimized, bullying, or witnessing cyberbullying. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking. 2018;21(4):234-239. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2017.0369
  • National Association for the Education of Young Children; Fred Rogers Center for Early Learning and Children’s Media at Saint Vincent College. Technology and Interactive Media as Tools in Early Childhood Programs Serving Children from Birth through Age 8. https://www.naeyc.org/resources/topics/technology-and-media/resources/. Published January 2012. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • Potvin Kent, M.; Pauze, E.; Roy, E.A.; de Billy, N.; Czoli, C. Children and adolescents’ exposure to food and beverage marketing in social media apps. Pediatric Obesity. 2019;14(6):e12508. doi: 10.1111/ijpo.12508
  • Radesky, J.; Leung, C.; Appugliese, D.; Miller, A.L.; Lumeng, J.C.; Rosenblum, K.L. Maternal mental representations of the child and mobile phone use during parent-child mealtimes. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics. 2018;39(4):310-317. doi: 10.1097/DBP.0000000000000556
  • Tripathi, M.; Mishra, S.K. Screen time and adiposity among children and adolescents: A systematic review. Journal of Public Health. 2019;234. doi: 10.1007/s10389-019-01043-x
  • Vaillancourt, T.; Faris, R.; Mishna, F. Cyberbullying in Children and Youth: Implications for Health and Clinical Practice. The Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. 2016;62(6):368-373. doi: 10.1177/0706743716684791
  • What should I do when my 8-year-old won’t stop asking me for a cellphone and other gadgets? Mediatrics. http://mediatrics.com/ask-the-mediatrician/what-should-i-do-when-my-8-year-old-wont-stop-asking-me-for-a-phone-and-other-gadgets/. Published September 27, 2012. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • Williford, A.; Orsi, R.; DePaolis, K.J.; Isen, D. Cyber and traditional peer victimization: Examining unique associations with children’s internalizing difficulties. Children and Youth Services Review. 2018;93(October 2018):51-59. doi: 10.1016/j.childyouth.2018.07.001
  • Wilson BJ. Media and children’s aggression, fear, and altruism. The Future of Children. 2008;18(1):87-118.
  • Xu, H.; Wen, L.M.; Rissel,, C. Associations of parental influences with physical activity and screen time among young children: A systematic review. Journal of Obesity. 2015;546925. doi: 10.1155/2015/546925

Tweens

  • Anderson M, Jiang J. Teens, Social Media & Technology 2018. Pew Research Center: Internet, Science & Tech. https://www.pewresearch.org/internet/2018/05/31/teens-social-media-technology-2018/. Published May 31, 2018. Accessed April 20, 2020.
    Barbovschi, M.; Machackova, H.; Olafsson, K. Underage use of social network sites: It’s about friends. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 2015;18(6):328-332. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0553
  • Bjelland, M.; Soenens, B.; Bere, E.; et al. Associations between parental rules, style of communication and children’s screen time. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1002). doi: 10.1186/s12889-015-2337-6
  • Bruggeman, H.; Van Hiel, A.; Van Hal, G.; Van Dongen, S. Does the use of digital media affect psychological well-being? An empirical test among children aged 9 to 12. Computers in Human Behavior. 2019;101(December 2019):104-113. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2019.07.015
  • Bruni, O.; Sette, S.; Fontanesi, L.; Baiocco, R.; Laghi, F.; Baumgartner, E. Technology use and sleep quality in preadolescence and adolescence. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine. 2015;11(12):1433-1441. doi: 10.5664/jcsm.5282
  • Camerini A-L, Marciano, L.; Carrara, A.; Schulz, P.J. Cyberbullying perpetration and victimization among children and adolescents: A systematic review of longitudinal studies. Telematics and Informatics. 2020;49(June 2020):101362. doi: 10.1016/j.tele.2020.101362
  • Common Sense Media. The Common Sense Census: Media Use by Tweens and Teens, 2019. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/the-common-sense-census-media-use-by-tweens-and-teens-2019/. Published October 28, 2019. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • Fardouly, J.; Magson, N.R.; Johnco, C.J.; Oar, E.L.; Rapee, R.M. Parental Control of the Time Preadolescents Spend on Social Media: Links with Preadolescents’ Social Media Appearance Comparisons and Mental Health. J Youth Adolesc. 2018;47(7):1456-1468. doi: 10.1007/s10964-018-0870-1.
  • How do we get the laptops, smartphones and tablets out of our kids’ bedrooms? Mediatrics. http://mediatrics.com/ask-the-mediatrician/devices-out-of-bedrooms/. Published May 15, 2015. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • Hwang, Y.; Choi, I.; Yum, J.Y.; Jeong, S.H. Parental Mediation Regarding Children’s Smartphone Use: Role of Protection Motivation and Parenting Style. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 2017;20(6):362-368. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2016.0555
  • Kildare, C.A.; Middlemiss, W. Impact of parents mobile device use on parent-child interaction: A literature review. Computers in Human Behavior. 2017;75(October 2017):579-593. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2017.06.003
  • Lee, S.J.; Chae, Y.G. Balancing participation and risks in children’s Internet use: the role of internet literacy and parental mediation. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 2012;15(5):257-262. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2011.0552
  • Limtrakul, N.; Louthrenoo, O.; Narkpongphun, A.; Boonchooduang, N.; Chonchaiya, W. Media use and psychosocial adjustment in children and adolescents. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health. 2018;54(3):296-301. doi: 10.1111/jpc.13725
  • Lobel, A.; Engels, R.C.M.E., Stone, L.L.; Burk, W.J.; Granic, I. Video gaming and children’s psychosocial wellbeing: A longitudinal study. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2017;46(4):884-897. doi: 10.1007/s10964-017-0646-z
  • McInroy, L.B.; Mishna, F. Cyberbullying on online gaming platforms for children and youth. Child and Adolescent Social Work Journal. 2017;34(6):597-607. doi: 10.1007/s10560-017-0498-0
  • Radesky, J.; Moreno, M.A. How to consider screen time limits…for parents. JAMA Pediatrics. 2018;172(10):996. doi: 10.1001/jamapediatrics.2018.2550
  • Sasson, H.; Mesch, G. The role of parental mediation and peer norms on the likelihood of cyberbullying. The Journal of Genetic Psychology. 2017;178(1):15-27. doi: 10.1080/00221325.2016.1195330
  • Saul, J.S.; Rodgers, R.F. Adolescent eating disorder risk and the online world. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2018;27(2):221-228. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2017.11.011
  • Simpson, C.C.; Kwitowski, M.; Boutte, R.; Gow, R.W.; Mazzeo, S.E. Messages about appearance, food, weight and exercise in “tween” television. Eating Behaviors. 2016;23(December 2016):70-75. doi: 10.1016/j.eatbeh.2016.08.001
  • Ter Bogt, T.F., Vieno, A., Doornwaard, S.M., Pastore, M. and Van den Eijnden, R.J. “You’re not alone:” Music as a source of consolation among adolescents and young adults. Psychology of Music. 2017;45(2):155-171. doi: 10.1177/0305735616650029
  • Tortolero, S.R.; Peskin, M.F.; Baumler, E.R.; et al. Daily violent video game playing and depression in preadolescent youth. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking. 2014;17(9):609-615. doi: 10.1089/cyber.2014.0091
  • Totland, T.H.; Bjelland, M.; Lien, N.; et al. Adolescents’ prospective screen time by gender and parental education, the mediation of parental influences. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity. 2013;10:89. doi: 10.1186/1479-5868-10-89
  • Vannucci, A.; McCauley Ohannessian, C. Social media use subgroups differentially predict psychosocial well-being during early adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence. 2019;48(8):1469-1493. doi: 10.1007/s10964-019-01060-9
  • Vieira, E.T.; Krcmar, M. The influences of video gaming on US children’s moral reasoning about violence. Journal of Children and Media. 2011;5(2):113-131. doi: 10.1080/17482798.2011.558258

Teens

  • Belfort, E.L.; Miller, L. Relationship between adolescent suicidality, self-injury, and media habits. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2018;27(2):159-169. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2017.11.004
  • Common Sense Media. The New Normal: Parents, Teens, and Devices Around the World. https://www.commonsensemedia.org/research/The-New-Normal-Parents-Teens-and-Devices-Around-the-World/. Published October 1, 2019. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • Coyne, S.M.; Radesky, J.; Collier, K.M.; et al. Parenting and digital media. Pediatrics. 2017;140(Suppl. 2):S112. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1758N
  • Crone, E.A.; Konijn, E.A. Media use and brain development during adolescence. Nature Communications. 2018;9(1):588. doi: 10.1038/s41467-018-03126-x
  • De Veirman, M.; Hudders, L.; Nelson, M.R. What is influencer marketing and how does it target children? A review and direction for future research. Frontiers in Psychology. 2019;10:2685. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02685
  • Gasso, A.M.; Klettke, B.; Agustina, J.R.; Montiel, I. Sexting, mental health, and victimization among adolescents: A literature review. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health. 2019;16(13):2364. doi: 10.3390/ijerph16132364
  • Gerwin, R.L.; Kaliebe, K.; Daigle, M. The interplay between digital media use and development. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2018;27(2):345-355. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2017.11.002
  • Glover, J.; Fritsch, S.L. #KidsAnxiety and social media: A review. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2018;27(2):171-182. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2017.11.005
  • Hale, L.; Kirschen, G.W.; LeBourgeois, M.K.; et al. Youth screen media habits and sleep: Sleep-friendly screen behavior recommendations for clinicians, educators, and parents. Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Clinics of North America. 2018;27(2):229-245. doi: 10.1016/j.chc.2017.11.014
  • Holody K.J.; Anderson C.; Craig C.; Flynn M. “Drunk in love”: The portrayal of risk behavior in music lyrics. Journal of Health Communication. 2016;21(10):1098-106. doi: 10.1080/10810730.2016.1222032
  • How can I help my teen focus and stop procrastinating with media? Mediatrics. http://mediatrics.com/ask-the-mediatrician/help-teen-focus/. Published November 21, 2017. Accessed April 20, 2020.
  • James, C.; Davis, K.; Charmaraman, L.; et al. Digital life and youth well-being, social connectedness, empathy, and narcissism. Pediatrics. 2017;140(Suppl 2):S71-s75. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1758F
  • Khouja, J.N.; Munafo, M.R.; Tilling, K.; et al. Is screen time associated with anxiety or depression in young people? Results from a UK birth cohort. BMC Public Health. 2019;19(1):82. doi: 10.1186/s12889-018-6321-9
  • Lin, M.H.; Vijayalakshmi, A.; Laczniak, R. Toward an understanding of parental views and actions on social media influencers targeted at adolescents: The roles of parents’ social media use and empowerment. Frontiers in Psychology. 2019;10:2664. doi: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.02664
  • Liu, M.; Wu, L.; Yao, S. Dose-response association of screen time-based sedentary behaviour in children and adolescents and depression: a meta-analysis of observational studies. British Journal of Sports Medicine. 2016;50(20):1252-1258. doi: 10.1136/bjsports-2015-095084
  • Moser, C., Schoenebeck, S. Y., & Reinecke, K. Technology at the table: Attitudes about mobile phone use at mealtimes. Proceedings of the 2016 CHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. 2016: 1881-1892. doi: 10.1145/2858036.2858357
  • Ra, C.K.; Cho, J.; Stone, M.D.; et al. Association of digital media use with subsequent symptoms of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder among adolescents. JAMA. 2018;320(3):255-263. doi: 10.1001/jama.2018.8931
  • Rich, M., Tsappis, M., & Kavanaugh, J. R. (2017). Problematic interactive media use among children and adolescents: Addiction, compulsion, or syndrome? In K. S. Young & C. N. de Abreu (Eds.), Internet addiction in children and adolescents: Risk factors, assessment, and treatment (p. 3–28). Springer Publishing Company.
  • Robinson, T.N.; Banda, J.A.; Hale, L.; et al. Screen media exposure and obesity in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2017;140(Suppl. 2):S97-s101. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1758K
  • Romer, D.; Moreno, M. Digital media and risks for adolescent substance abuse and problematic gambling. Pediatrics. 2017;140(Suppl. 2):S102. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1758L
  • Strasburger, V.C.; Zimmerman, H.; Temple, J.R.; Madigan, S. Teenagers, sexting, and the law. Pediatrics. 2019;143(5):e20183183. doi: 10.1542/peds.2018-3183
  • Uhls, Y.T.; Ellison, N.B.; Subrahmanyam, K. Benefits and costs of social media in adolescence. Pediatrics. 2017;140(Suppl. 2):S67-s70. doi: 10.1542/peds.2016-1758E
  • van Der Schuur, W.A.; Baumgartner, S.E.; Sumter, S.R.; Valkenburg, P.M. The consequences of media multitasking for youth: A review. Computers in Human Behavior. 2015;53(December 2015):204-215. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.06.035